First study to compare trunk or gluteal muscle activity between 26 different aquatic rehabilitative exercises performed by people with chronic low back pain.
Hip abduction/adduction and extension/flexion exercises produced higher activity for gluteal muscles. Variations of squat exercises increased the activity of back extensors. Higher abdominal muscle activity was produced with exercises that made use of buoyancy equipment and included leg and trunk movements while floating on the back, and with some proprioceptive and dynamic lower limb exercises. Pain occurrence and intensity were very low, with 17 exercises being pain free.